Ask the fraud department at your card's issuing bank about the time limits for chargeback for fraud. If necessary, explain that it's not an unauthorized charge, but a scam. In many places, the deadline is only 120 days, but some countries have consumer protection laws extending the deadline.
Also, ask your bank and local police about where to file online financial fraud charges.
And, based on a recent CFTC announcement, it looks like the Israeli Securities Authority is a good place to complain about most of these binary scams.