Any financial advice you give someone related to an investment (markets, trading, real estate, business, etc.) is covered by rules, policies and laws. You cannot give any type of financial advice regarding any type of investment without following the US and applicable State laws. An individual, or individuals, are accountable under many US laws for any financial advice and/or consulting they provide. The easiest answer I can provide is one must follow the rules and laws of the US if they are going to consult on any type of financial transaction.Are there cases when judges decided that financial consulting is not consulting but financial expertise?